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Responses in tropospheric O3, OH and CH4 to changed emissions of important trace gases

Isaksen, Ivar S. A., Jan S. Fuglestvedt, Terje K. Berntsen (Report;1993:04)

A two-dimensional (altitude vs. latitude) photochemical/transport model of the global troposphere is applied to study the effects of changed emissions of NOx, CH4, CO2 and NMHC on the levels of O3, OH and CH4. On a mass basis, the efficiencies in increasing O3 concentrations differs markedly between...

Biological effects of climate change: An introduction to the field and a survey of current research

Kristiansen, Gørill (Report;1993:03)

This report presents a survey of international (Chapter 2) as well as national research activities within 13 selected countries (Chapter 3) in the field of biological effects of climate change. In addition, a brief overview of potential changes within natural ecosystems in response to climate change...

Study to develop practical guidelines for "Joint Implementation" under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Hanisch, Ted, Selrod, Rolf, Asbjørn Torvanger, Hans Asbjørn Aaheim (Report;1993:02)

In December 1991, the OECD Environment and Development Ministers directed OECD "to initiate work on mechanisms to facilitate joint implementation, in a cost effective manner, of commitments on greenhouse gases." This report has been prepared for the Environment Directorate of the OECD as part of the...

Direct and indirect global warming potentials of source gases

Isaksen, Ivar S. A., Wang, Wei-Chyung, Jan S. Fuglestvedt (Report;1994:01)

Global Warming Potentials for emissions of CH4, CO and NOx that take into account indirect chemical effects have been estimated for five time horizons. The indirect effects of methane emissions that have been considered are the ability of methane to increase its own lifetime (through the CH4/OH-feed...

From confrontation to cooperation. A developed country perspective on the role of developing countries' contribution to technology development and transfer

Innbjør, Linda, Vennemo, Haakon, Knut H. Alfsen (Report;2009:07)

Effects of reductions in stratospheric ozone on tropospheric chemistry through changes in photolysis rates

Jonson, J. E., Isaksen, Ivar S. A., Jan S. Fuglestvedt (Report;1993:05)

The observed reductions in stratospheric ozone since the late 1970s are likely to have affected the penetration of UV radiation into the troposphere. We have examined the sensitivity and the response of the tropospheric chemistry to such changes in UV radiation. Based on observations of ozone column...

What might be minimum requirements for making the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Climate Convention credible and operational

Selrod, Rolf, Asbjørn Torvanger (Report;1994:04)

Joint implementation (JI) is a mechanism under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The criteria of the mechanism are yet to be decided upon, but discussions in the International Negotiating Committee (INC) and in other fora have shown large differences of opinions on how to make th...

The state of the ozone layer: A 1994 science update

Isaksen, Ivar S. A. (Report;1994:03)

Both the ground based and satellite observation data bases have been extended since the previous international ozone assessment. There are several satellite systems in operation that provide total ozone data, which have been extensively compared with ground based data. One problem with the satellite...

Energy efficiency: A possible no-regrets option for curbing greenhouse gas emissions

Pettersen, Marit (Report;1994:02)

The risk of global warming is a problem that is inherently international in its character. A solution may require international cooperation on a wide scale, but binding treaties are difficult to negotiate. Moreover, free rider incentives reduce the chances of successful implementation of these accor...

World Bank appraisal mission to Mexico The GEF - ILUMEX Project

Selrod, Rolf, Skjelvik, John Magne (Report;1994:08)

These two reports (R1994-07 & R1994-08) were written for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as part of our participation in the World Bank Appraisal Missions to initiate two practical demonstration projects for possible future Joint Implementation projects. The papers give a background and de...